Universidad Interamericana Puerto Rico
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Green Infrastructure in Protection of Coastal Water Quality (SU835085

  • Warren, M., Crespo-Medina, M., Ramirez Toro, G., Rodriguez R., Hernández M., Rosario-Ortiz F., Korak J. Water Quality in Puerto Rico after Hurricane Maria: Challenges Associated with Water Quality Assessments and Implications for Resilience. ACS ES&T Water. (January 24,2023). ACS ES&T Water
  • Hertler H., Crespo-Medina M., Christian R., Brinson M., Frontera T., Minnigh H., Ramírez G. Characterization of the Structure and Coverage of the Mangrove Forest in Parguera, Southwest Puerto Rico; a baseline for a lon-term surveillance program. Submitted to: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. (2023).
  • Crespo Medina M. (Session moderator and speaker), Hertler H., Ramírez Toro G. Monitoring of the Structure of a Caribbean Mangrove Forest and its Response to Stressors. Session – Resilience, Recovery and Response of Mangrove Ecosystems to stressors. CERF 27th Biennial Conference. Portland, Oregon. (November 12 -16, 2023). D137-138
  • Ramírez Toro G.  An Educational Intervention in 7 very small potable water systems to improve community health and operational capacity: value of sampling and appropriate technology. The EWRI Congress Technical Program Committee – World Environmental & Water Resources Congress. (May 21-24, 2023). 
  • Ramírez Toro G., Crespo-Medina, M., Minnigh, H. An Educational Intervention in 7 very small potable water systems to improve community health and operational capacity: value of sampling and appropriate technology. EWRI Congress 2023. (May 21-24, 2023).
  • Griffin S., Crespo-Medina M., Maldonado C., Wade T., Egorov A., Ramirez-Toro G. A Community Study of Drinking Water Supply and Gastroenteritis in Puerto Rico: Application of a Salivary Immunoassay for Detection of Waterborne Infection. International Society of Exposure Science (ISES) Annual Conference in Chicago, IL; (August 2023).
  • Crespo Medina M., Ramírez Toro G. Surveying Water Quality in Puerto Rico after hurricane Maria: challenges and implications for resilience. 14th CECIA-IAUPR Biennial Symposium on Potable Water Issues in Puerto Rico: Science, Technology and Regulation (Water and wastewater in times of a Pandemic: what happened since 2019 and what to plan for?). (February 16 – 17, 2023).
  • Crespo Medina M., Minnigh H., Ramírez Toro G. Are there parasites in my water? Detection and classification of Cryptosporidium and Giardia from small potable water systems in Puerto Rico. Forward Research Symposium, San Juan. (October 11, 2022).
  • Crespo Medina M., Minnigh H., Davila J., Ramírez Toro G. Confirmation of presumptive Salmonella spp. isolated from different small public water supply systems in Puerto Rico and their relationship with environmental parameters. Forward Research Symposium, San Juan. (October 11, 2022). 
  • Keenun I., Crespo-Medina M., Garner E., Pieper K., Forrest Blair M., Milligan E., Pruden A., Ramírez-Toro G., Rhoads W. Source-to-Tap Assessment of Microbiological Water Quality in Small Rural Drinking Water Systems in Puerto Rico Six Months after Hurricane Maria. (March 1, 2021). acs.org
  • Ramírez-Toro, G.I. Collaborative Research: RAPID Assessment of Water Quality in Puerto Rico after Hurricane María – The lead Story. (May 2021).  
  • Sinha R., Patterson C., Ramírez-Toro, G.I., Maldonado C., Minnigh H. Filtration Challenges and Implementation of Solar-Powered Turbidity Control and Backwash Systems to Optimize Drinking Water Treatment and Distribution in Non-PRASA Communities in Puerto Rico. EWRI World Environmental & Water Resources Congress. (June 2021).  
  • Ramírez-Toro, G. Collaborative Research:  RAPID – Assessment of Water Quality in Puerto Rico after Hurricane María (the lead story part-one). Cyber Caribbean Workshop about Cyber Infrastructure in Response to Disasters. (August 5, 2020).
  • Ramírez-Toro, G. Collaborative Research:  RAPID – Assessment of Water Quality in Puerto Rico after Hurricane María (the lead story part-two). Cyber Caribbean Workshop about Cyber Infrastructure in Response to Disasters. (August 21, 2020)
  • Davis B., Riquelme V., Ramirez-Toro G., Bandaragoda C., Garner E., Rhoads J., Vikesland P., Pruden A. Demonstrating an Integrated Antibiotic Resistance Gene Surveillance Approach in Puerto Rican Watersheds Post Hurricane María. Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. (November 18, 2020). pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
  • Crespo-Medina, M., Greaves, I., Hunter P., Minnigh H. & Ramírez-Toro G.  Detection of Shigatoxin Encoding Genes in Small Community Water Supplies in PR.  IWA Journal of Water and Health: Vol. 18.6. pag. 937-945. Detection of Shigan toxin enconding genes in small

Tesis de Maestría: 

Acosta V. Estudio sobre el conocimiento de las enfermedades transmitidas por el consumo de ostiones crudos en el suroeste de Puerto Rico. Inter American University of Puerto Rico, San Germán. (2022).  

Davila Caraballo J. Assay for the confirmation of presumptive Salmonella spp. in a collection of cultures from small public water supply systems (source and distributed water), and its relationship with other physicochemical parameters of the sample’s matrixes. Inter American University of Puerto Rico, Bayamón. (2022).

Colaboradores: 

Graciela I. Ramírez-Toro, Ph.D.
Directora Institucional – Catedrática
Centro de Educación, Conservación e Interpretación Ambiental (CECIA)
Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico
787-264-1912, ext.7630, 7631
gramirez@inter.edu

Melitza Crespo-Medina, Ph.D.
Directora Asociada – Catedrática Asociada – Investigadora
Centro de Educación, Conservación e Interpretación Ambiental (CECIA)
Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico
melitzacm@inter.edu

Jaera Dávila Caraballo, MPH
Técnico Investigador
Centro de Educación, Conservación e Interpretación Ambiental (CECIA)
Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico
jdavila5059@intersg.edu

Exor Rullán Vargas 
Asistente Administrativo 
Centro de Educación, Conservación e Interpretación Ambiental (CECIA)
Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico
exor_rullan@inter.edu

Date Overview Authors Publication
2012-04-21 Land use changes often outpace the ability of natural systems to contain contaminants entering near shore marine systems. Retrofit concepts for green infrastructure have been developed by applying and adapting methods for this area (CWP, 2011). By identifying sources of contaminants, determining the effectiveness of green infrastructures in contaminant removal, and working with community members to better understand the role of this type of structure coastal water quality, we work encourage environmental stewardship. Preliminary data indicate that this area is in need of stormwater control which enters with high total suspended solids, nutrients, and microbial contaminations. C. Fernandez-Team leader,J. Colón-Team Leader, G. Ramírez-Co-author,H. Hertler-Co-author No Disponible
Date Overview Authors Publication
2010-05-26 The ocurrence of Cyclospora (Cyc) and Cryptosporidium (Cry)spp is unknown for Puerto Rico and for most of the Caribbean although Cyc were identified by the Commonwealth Department of Health and verified by CDC in one outbreak of uncertain etiology in an area served by a small potable water system. The authors understook to survey waters distributed to users in small potable water systems on the Island. Users in these systems sre protected, if at all, only by disinfection-usually chlorination-and the incidence of possibly waterborne illness in these areas has been reported to be above Island-wide levels. To date, eleven 40-L samples were collected and concentrated by flocculation, then Cry determined by direct fluorescent antibody techniques on IMS-separated portions; DNA was extracted and stored for subsequent analyses. Cyc were determined by modified Zielhl-Neelson staining and wet-mount microscopic examination. These systems were also examined for standard bacteriological water indicators (total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC), E. coli (Ec) and Enterococci (ent)) and Salmonella and these results are correlated with ocurrence of the protozoa. Of the four systems surveyed to date one was positive for Cry and two were positive for Cyc. All these systems were positive for TC, FC, Ec, ent and Salmonella, as well. G I Ramírez toro, G. Robinson, R M Chalmers, H A Minnigh 1-CECIA, Interamerican University of Puerto Rico. 2-Public Health Wales, Swansea, Wales, UK. 3-The Gabriella and Paul Rosenbaum Foundation, Chicago, IL. No Disponible
Date Overview Authors Publication
2012-06-19 In Puerto Rico the local oysters and clams are harvested from coastal estuaries and sounds and there is no controlled mariculture for this product. During heavy rain these surface waters routinely receive effluent containing fecal waste of residential, municipal, agricultural or wildlife origin in storm discharges. This surface water contamination likely contributes to the burden of shellfish-associated gastroenteritis. Shellfish are harvested from near-shore areas of different bays in the southwest and south of Puerto Rico and sold in local markets. Shellfish, mostly mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhozophorea) and – in much smaller numbers – clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) are harvested from four areas in Puerto Rico. Most oysters come from and are sold adjacent to Boquerón Bay where we sampled 3 sites. The other sites had one station each. Clams are geographically more distributed but the beds are less abundant Standard sampling protocols developed by the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference (ISSC) were used to conduct a survey of Puerto Rico’s four primary shellfish rearing areas. At each of the area sites water, sediment, and bivalves were sampled during an 18 month period. Total coliform (TC), Thermotolerant coliforms (ThC), E. coli (Ec), Enterococcus spp., Salmonella spp., in bivalve, water and sediment samples and hepatitis A virus and norovirus in bivalve samples were analyzed. Bacterial methods were according to Standard Methods and for viruses RNA was extracted from the bivalve’s stomach with a proteinase K based protocol and real time PCR was conducted on the samples with appropriate internal amplification positive control in each sample subsequently. A total of 72 pooled, 15 individuals samples were tested for viruses with the following results. Bacterial concentrations found in the samples ranged from 15-25 CFU ThC/g, 15-25 CFU E. coli/g, and 30-145 Enterococci/g in bivalves; 30-875 CFU ThC/g, 250-550 CFU E. coli/g, and 30-145 Enterococci/g in sediments; and 60-1100 CFU ThC/ml, 60-1250 CFU E. coli/ml, and 14-23 Enterococci/ml in water. Data from this study suggests that mollusks harvested from surface waters not specifically approved for shellfish harvesting pose a health risk for consumers and that water and sediment quality indicators correlate well with microbial occurrence in bivalves. H. Minnigh, G. Ramírez Toro, K. Ballester, J. Levine; 1The Gabriella and Paul Rosenbaum Fdn., Lajas, PR, 2CECIA, UIPR, San Germán, PR, 3PHP Dept., Coll. of Vet. Med., NCSU, Raleigh, NC, 4PHP Dept., Coll. of Vet. Med.a, NCSU, Raleigh, NC. No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
2011-10-03 The ocurrence of Cyclospora and Cryptosporidium spp is unknown for Puerto Rico and for most of the Caribbean but reported occurrence for Cryptosporidium in clinical samples ranges from 4 to 60% and for Cyclospora from 1 to 34%. Cyclospora were identified by the Commonwealth Department of Health and verified by CDC in one outbreak of uncertain etiology in an area served by a small potable water system. In a survey over the period 2008-2011 waters distributed to users in small potable water systems in the Island were analyzed for microbial water quality indicators (total coliform (TC), thermotolerant coliform (TTC), E. Coli (Ec) and Enterococus (Ent)), Salmonella, Cruptosporidium and Cyclospora. Graciela Ramírez-Toro, Guy Robinson, Rachel Chalmers and Harvey Minnig No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
2010-10-01 Hunter et al. BMC Public Health 2010, 10:219 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/10/219 Paul R Hunter*1, Graciela I Ramírez-Toro2 and Harvey A Minnigh3 No Disponible
Date Overview Authors Publication
2010-04-11 Poster #P077- The water Research Conference. Marriot Lisbon, Portugal Ramírez-Toro G.I, Minnigh H. No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
1990-01-01 Poster presentado en CERF Argentina 14-16 noviembre 2012 Graciela Ramírez toro, Karina Ballester, Harvey Minnigh and Jay Levine CECIA, Interamerican University of Puerto Rico, North Carolina State University & Gabriella and Paul Rosenbaum Foundation No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
2005-01-01 Indicators have been used for at least 80 years in the monitoring of potable water. While indicator theory is clear on the point, many workers in the field have assumed that negative indicator results are “proof” that the distribution system tested is free from microbiological contamination, in particular that frank pathogens are un-likely to occur in these systems.1 Seven small, remote potable water systems in Puerto Rico were sampled in the period June-November, 2004. Relatively large volumes (8.7-10.9 liters) of both source and distributed wa-ter were filtered, the filters divided in three, one-half analyzed in Puerto Rico and the other half divided, in turn, one-quarter for analysis in each of the University of DE and Washington College. Filters for each lab were ag-gregated in a single container for shipment and subsequent analysis for the occurrence of Salmonella. Indica-tors, i.e., total and fecal coliforms, E. coli, fecal strep and HPC were analyzed in Puerto Rico. Salmonella were analyzed the Standard Methods, serological and molecular techniques and results considered positive with a positive result in any of these techniques. Results are shown in Table 1. Salmonella were found to occur in all but one of the raw waters and all but two of the distribution systems and in the presence of free chlorine residu-als up to 0.8 mg/L. Implications for judgments of microbiological water quality in such systems are discussed as are the utility and cost of routine pathogen monitoring for specific potable water systems. Results from the participating labs were not significantly different one from another by McNemar’s test and correlations among the Salmonella techniques used and with standard indicators are reported. Diane Herson1, bunch-o-students1, Katherine Verveille1, other bunch-o-students2, G. I. Ramírez toro3, Big mess-o-students3, H. Minnigh3 1University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 2Washington College, Washington, MD, 3Interamerican University of Puerto Rico, San Germán No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
1990-01-01 Minnigh, HA & Ramírez Toro, G.I.1999. Viability of Small Water System: Making Sense does not mean it will work. IV Congreso Regional de AIDIS para Norte América y el Caribe. 4 al 8 de octubre de 1999. Kingston, Jamaica. No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
2013-06-10 Minnigh, H.A, G.I. Ramírez, W.O. Pipes& C.O. Vázquez. 1992. Preliminary Studies on High-Rate Slow Sand Filter in Tropical Climates. Abst. Meeting for Safety of Water Disifection: Balancing Chemical and Microbial Risks. Washington, D.C No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
1990-01-01 Agreement between methods using 4-Methylumberlifery1-B-glucuronice and conventional biochemical methods to identify E.coli. G.I. Ramírez Toro, H.A. Minnigh and Eva Rivera. 1994. Agreement between methods using 4-Methylumberlifery1-B-glucuronice and conventional biochemical methods to identify E.coli.Abstr. Ann.Mtgs ASM. Paper Q216. No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
2008-10-14 Presentación Oral. XXXI Congreso Interamericano de Ingeniería Sanitaria y Ambiental. 1 Foro Interamericano sobre Servicios de Agua y Saneamiento. Santiago-Chile 12-15 de octubre de 2008. H. Minnigh, G. I. Ramírez, P. Hunter 2008 No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
1990-01-01 Presentación Oral Ramirez, G.I, Minnigh H.A, Troche F; Ramos Morales Larry & Rivera Matos, Odriel. 1997. Bacteriological Water Quality Indicators in Natural Water. III Regional AIDIS Congress for North America and the Caribbean. June 8-12,1997. No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
2013-06-12 Presentación Oral H.Minnigh, G.I Ramírez, P. Hunter, D. Herson, D. Verville. 2008. (Oral Presentation). Microbiological Indicators, Frank Pathogens and Disease in Small Potable Water System. AWRA 2008 Annual Conference. New Orleans, Louisiana. No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
2013-06-12 Presentación Oral W.O. Pipes, Minnigh H.A, Ramírez-Toro G.I., Rivera Mérida & Rivera Eva. 1993. Bacterial Indicators in Experimental Slow Sand Filters in Puerto Rico. Conference on Water Quality in the Wstern Hemisphere No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
2013-09-19 AIMS In Puerto Rico oysters and clams are harvested from near-shore areas of different bays in the southwest and south of Puerto Rico and sold in local markets. During moderate to heavy rains surface waters feeding these growing and harvesting areas routinely receive effluents containing fecal waste from residential, municipal, agricultural and wildlife origins. These shellfish are harvested from areas where there is no shellfish sanitation program or controlled mariculture for this product. This surface water contamination was thought likely to contribute to the burden of shellfish-associated gastroenteritis. Little is actively being done to ensure the sanitary quality of shellfish being consumed on the island. There is a lack of trained laboratory workers to conduct surveys of shellfish culture areas, limited public or, more importantly food handlers’ awareness of the risks of consuming raw shellfish as well as an almost total lack of epidemiologic records specific to illness due to consumption of shellfish. We hypothesize that molluscan shellfish harvested from local surface waters pose a health risk for island residents and travelers visiting the island. We anticipate that the establishment of a shellfish sanitation program and the increased awareness of food-borne illnesses will reduce the incidence of shellfish-associated illness in Puerto Rico, as it has in other locations. This study was initiated to estimate the prevalence of enteric pathogens in molluscan shellfish harvested and sold locally to provide evidence of that contamination and to engender support for a shellfish sanitation program in Puerto Rico in agencies and, more importantly, among vendors. In addition, these data will help prioritize on-shore actions to reduce these inflows into waters where shellfish grow and are harvested. Other objectives were assessment of shellfish vendor and consumer knowledge of the risks posed by consuming raw shellfish and training of state, and federal workers in the design, and implementation of shellfish sanitation programs. Shellfish, mostly mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhozophorea) and – in much smaller numbers – clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) are harvested from four areas in Puerto Rico; Boquerón Bay, Puerto Real, Santa Isabel and Jobos Bay. Most oysters come from and are sold adjacent to Boquerón Bay where we sampled 3 sites. The other sites had one station each. Clams are geographically more distributed but the beds are less abundant. The harvesting and sampling sites are shown at Figure 1. METHODS Standard sampling protocols developed by the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference (ISSC) were used to conduct a survey of Puerto Rico’s four primary shellfish rearing areas. At each of the area sites water, sediment, and bivalves were sampled bimonthly and after five storm events during an 18 month period. Each matrix was analyzed for the detection of total coliform (TC), Thermotolerant coliforms (ThC), E. coli (Ec), Enterococcus spp., Salmonella spp., in bivalve, water and sediment samples and Hepatitis A virus and Norovirus in bivalve samples. For each sample site a single 1-L water sample, three approximately 30-gr sediment samples and approximately 15-50 animals were collected. Aliquots of all three matrices were analyzed. Oysters and clams were stomached and the slurry collected aseptically. Bacterial methods were according to Standard Methods and for viruses RNA was extracted from the bivalve’s stomach with a proteinase K based protocol and by means of the Biomeriux® Nuclisens EasyMag which is an apparatus that automatically performs RNA or DNA extraction. Later, real-time PCR was conducted on the samples with appropriate internal amplification positive control in each sample. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS A total of 72 pooled samples (15 individuals each) were tested for viruses and 15% of the samples were positive for the viruses tested. Norovirus GI and GII were both found as well Hepatites A. Bacterial concentrations found in the samples ranged from 15-25 CFU ThC/g, 15-25 CFU E. coli/g, and 30-145 Enterococci/g in bivalves; 30-875 CFU ThC/g, 250-550 CFU E. coli/g, and 30-145 Enterococci/g in sediments; and 60-1100 CFU ThC/ml, 60-1250 CFU E. coli/ml, and 14-23 Enterococci/ml in water. Data from this study suggests that water and sediment quality indicators correlate well with microbial occurrence in bivalves and that molluscs harvested from surface waters not specifically approved for shellfish harvesting pose a health risk for consumers. Surveys of vendors and customers showed very little understanding of the risks of consuming nor handling raw shellfish nor means to reduce those risks. Several educational activities focused on vendors and agency personnel and to garner support for the implementation of a shellfish sanitation program were conducted. Among these was an experiment to demonstrate preferences of customers – vendors had believed that consumers would not purchase iced shellfish – and a pilot mariculture program with oysters moved to cleaner waters is underway and will be reported. Ramírez G, K. Ballester, H.A. Minnigh, J. Levine. Presentado en 17th International Symposium on Health Related Water Microbiology WaterMicro 2013 Florianopolis. TL67. 15-20 de septiembre 2013. No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
2013-09-19 AIMS The use of faecal indicator bacteria in the assurance of the safety of drinking water has a long and valuable history that extends for over a 100 years. Although ideally one would want to test water samples for the presence of pathogenic micro-organisms such pathogen detection can be very costly and time consuming. Faecal indictor bacteria are used because their presence is thought to indicate the presence of faecal material and, so the argument goes, if faecal material is present then there is a risk of faecal pathogens being present. In recent years confidence on faecal indicators as measures of drinking water safety has been dented by outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis and viral pathogens where such indicators were not detected. Nevertheless, indicator testing of drinking water remains one of the most commonly performed microbiological tests undertaken globally. The issue remains which of the three indicators listed above gives the most useful information. This paper reports on the outcome of three studies that used a variety of indicators to determine the relationship with illness with drinking water or the presence of pathogens in water. METHODS Data from three studies two of which have been reported in the literature. The first study was of self-reported diarrhoea in people living in households being supplied with drinking water from very small supplies (Risebro H et al. Risk of infectious intestinal disease in consumers drinking from private water supplies: A prospective cohort study. PLOS One 2012; 7(8): e42762). The second was a study of the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in larger private water supplies (Kay D et al. The microbiological quality of seven large commercial private water supplies in the United Kingdom. J Water Hlth 2007; 5: 523-538). The third study was of the presence of Salmonella in small supplies in Puerto Rico. Data analysis was done in STATA version 11.2. For each study we calculated the association between indicator presence/counts with the presence or absence of the outcome variable using logistic regression analysis with robust standard errors to account for repeat samples from the same water source. Where appropriate, we adjusted for potential cofounding variables within the study. In addition we calculated the area under each Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve to determine which indicator was the best predictor in each context RESULTS For the Puerto Rico study we had 102 data points of which 57% were positive for Salmonella. Associations were controlled for whether the samples were from source water or tap water and period of sampling. The model with total coliform (Pseudo R2=0.235) and p=0.0055, thermo-tolerant coliforms (Pseudo R2=0.232) and p=0.0073, E. coli (Pseudo R2=0.310) and p=0.047, Enterococci (Pseudo R2=0.318) and p<0.0001. Enterococci had the highest area under the ROC (0.804) and this was significantly greater than those of the other indicators (p=0.015). By contrast for the UK Cryptosporidium study E. coli gave the highest area under the ROC for both Cryptosporidium (0.67) and Giardia (0.71) and in both cases this was statistically significant (P=0.001 and p=0.006). However, in neither case was the relationship between E. coli and pathogen presence strong. For the study of self-reported diarrhoea, as reported previously, Enterocococci were more strongly associated with prevalence than E. coli or Total coliforms. Where there was a strong association with enterococci the models for E. coli were re-run after exclusion of enterococci positives and there was no apparent trend between E. coli positive Enterococci negative samples and Salmonella presence or indeed illness. CONCLUSIONS There has quite appropriately been a shift towards Water Safety Plans and away from simple reliance microbiological testing. However, faecal indicator organisms still have great value in the assurance of drinking water safety, especially in small and very small systems which are less likely to have expert oversight. We have shown that faecal indicator bacteria are predictors of the presence of enteric pathogens in water and also are predictors of illness in children. The strongest evidence of value is in favour of Enterococci. Hunter.P, G. Ramírez, H.A. Minnigh, D. Kays. Presentado en 17th International Symposium on Health Related Water Microbiology WaterMicro 2013. TL74. 15-20 de septiembre de 2013. No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
2013-11-05 Waters used as sources for five small potable water systems in Puerto Rico were sam-pled over a period of about 4 years. Samples were analyzed for total (TC) and thermo-tolerant (TC) coliforms, E. coli (Ec), enterococci (Ent), Salmonella (Salm), Cryptosporid-ium (Cryp) and Cyclospora as well as pH, turbidity. Distributed water was also ana-lyzed for free and total chlorine (FCl and TCl). In these systems the only difference be-tween raw and distributed water is chlorination. A subset of four systems was also analyzed for Bacteroides by molecular techniques in December, 2011. These data were generated to illustrate the incidence of Cryp in natural waters in Puerto Rico and as baseline data for treatments to be applied subsequently. For the normal indicators (TC, TTC, Ec & Ent), had arithmetic means of 1,300, 850, 500 and 460 CFU/ mL, respectively. Of 52 samples 18 were positive for Cryp and of these, only one was Salmonella negative and Cryp positive while 25 samples were Salm posi-tive and Cryp negative (McNemar’s test 4.707, p < 0.0001) suggesting a co-incidence of Salm and Cryp. Of 52 samples, as noted, 18 (35%) were positive for Cryp while 42 (81%) were positive for Salm. None of the 21 presumptive Cyclospora positives were verified. None of the distributed samples was Cryp positive. 0f the 94 distributed samples 31 (33%) were positive. Of the common indicators only TTC and Ec were sig-nificantly related to Salm and neither TCl nor FCl were related. Of the Bacteroides samples, only one was positive for the human specific marker. However, peafowl (3), chicken (3), cow (3), pig (4), dog (4), rabbit (5) and horse (1) droppings from the watersheds were collected and all the rabbit and one peafowl samples were positive for the human specific marker. Normalized, the peafowl sample was removed, so all rabbit and no other animal fecal samples were positive. All the rabbits were reported to be domesticated by residents. * Se prohibe el uso de fotografia e Información sin la autorización del Programa CECIA *Copyright CECIA Dra. Graciela Ramírez- Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico; Harvey Minnigh- Gabriella and Paul Rosenbaum Foundation; Michael Ryan- Drexel University Philadelphia; Presentado en 2013 Annual Water Resources Conferences- American Water Resources Association (AWRA)- Portland, Oregon- November 4-7,2013. No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
1998-01-01 The Role of attachment in the colonization and resistence of chlorine of fungi in potable water distribution systems. Ramirez G.I, MInnigh H.A, Pipes, W.O & Roseinweig, W.D (1998). Eight International Symposium on Microbilogy Halifax, Canada. No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
2001-01-01 Land Use Effects on Coastal Water and Infractructure in PR RAmirez G., H.A. MInnigh, H. Hertler. 2001. AWRA. University of Dundee International Specialty Conference, Scotland, UK. No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
1990-01-01 Subtropical Oysters as Indicators of Ecosystem Health Hertler H., H. Minnigh, G. Ramirez., D. Kreeger. Presentacion Oral. International Marine Conservation Congresss IMCC 2009. Virginia USA. No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
2007-11-16 Flat Tree Oysters as Indicators in Sub-Tropical Dry Climates Hertler. H, L. Martinez, D. Kregger, H. Minnigh, G. Ramirez. Estuarine Research FEderation, Providencen RI. (Oral Presentation). SCI006-1638 No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
2014-08-18 Drainwaters: Biological Responses to Water Quality G I Ramírez Toro and H A Minnigh. III Regional AIDIS Congress for North America and the Caribbean- June 8-12,1997) No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
2014-08-18 Staged Habitat Restoration Understanding the System is the Key Minnigh, H.A., A. Ruiz, and G.I. Ramírez. 1999. Staged Habitat Restoration: Understanding the System is the Key. IV Regional AIDIS Congress for North America and the Caribbean. Kingston, Jamaica. No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
2014-08-18 Water Quality in Tropical Waters In Relation to Onshore Development Ramírez, G., H.A. Minnigh,, R. Viqueira, H. Hertler, and C. Ferrer-Graniela. 2000. Water Quality in Tropical Waters in Relation to Onshore Development. WEFTC North Amercia 2000, 73th Annual Water Environmental Conference. California. No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
2014-08-18 Valuing water in rural Puerto Rico Minnigh, HA, G. Ramírez-Toro. 2001 Valuing Water Rural in Puerto Rico. AWRA. University of Dundee International Specialty Conference. August, Scotland, UK. 2001. No Disponible
Date Overview Authors Publication
2014-08-18 ABSTRACT Both imperfect fungi and yeast cultures isolated frompotable water samples were grown in sterile, chlorine-demand-free (CDF) systems containing sterile glassslides. These systems were constantly mixed at ratesthat provided 110 cm/sec at the slide surface. Slidesfrom these systems were transferred to each of twosterile, CDF systems containing sterile slides, one with(0.1 to 1.0 mg/L) and one without chlorine. Thesesecondary systems were sampled after incubation andchlorination at concentrations up to 0.8 mg/L foryeasts and 2.0 mg/L for molds. Counts of organismswere made by plate count techniques for bulk water,rinses and scrapes from slides, and by directmicroscopic count of attached organisms.Organisms were able to colonize both the bulkwater and the slides in the secondary systems even inthe presence of chlorine concentrations higher thanthose normally found in distribution systems.Planktonic and attached organisms from older biofilmsshowed more resistance to chlorine.Attachment allowed survivals 2 to 10 timeshigher than planktonic cells for fungi. Fungal isolates,in densities found in water distribution systems, onchlorination at levels typical of water distributionsystems, produced levels of trihalomethanes (THMs)in excess of the US EPA MCL Ramirez-Toro, G.I., H.A. Minnigh, and C. O. Vázquez. 2002. Pathogen TMDLs: A Review of Puerto Rican Monitoring in Natural and Coastal Waters:. Attachment and Colonization of Fungi in Potable Water Distribution System; Its Role in the Production of THMS. Session No. 248/Q. ASM 102nd General Meeting . Salt Lake , Utah. May 19-23, 2002. No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
2014-08-18 A Protocol for Isolating Salmonella in Small, Remote Drinking Water Systems: Links to Standard Microbial Water Quality Indicators Ramírez, G., Herson, D., Verville, K., Minnigh, H., (Junio 2009) “Protocol for Isolating Salmonella in Small, Remote drinking water System: Links to Standard Microbial Water Quality Indicators.” (Poster A83) 15th International Symposium on Health-Related Water Microbiology Naxos Island, Grecia. No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
2014-08-18 Indicator and pathogen occurrence in shellfish and their environments in Puerto Rico Ramírez, G.Karina Ballester, Heidi Hertler, Harvey Minnigh and Jay Levine , (octubre 2011). Indicators and pathogens occurrence in shellfish and their environment in Puerto Rico. Presentación de afiche científico en Conference Water and Health; where science meets policy. No Disponible
 
Date Overview Authors Publication
2015-09-13 Presentation at the: 18th International Symposium on Health-Related Water Microbiology Sept 13-19, 2015 Lisbon, Portugal Graciela I. Ramirez-Toro , CECIA Melitza Crespo Medina, CECIA Guy Robinson, Public Health Wales Rachel Chalmers, Public Health Wales Paul Hunter, University of East Anglia Harvey Minnigh, G&PRF No Disponible