Publicaciones

Green Infrastructure in Protection of Coastal Water Quality (SU835085)

FechaResumenAutoresPublicación
2012-04-21Land use changes often outpace the ability of natural systems to contain contaminants entering near shore marine systems. Retrofit concepts for green infrastructure have been developed by applying and adapting methods for this area (CWP, 2011). By identifying sources of contaminants, determining the effectiveness of green infrastructures in contaminant removal, and working with community members to better understand the role of this type of structure coastal water quality, we work encourage environmental stewardship. Preliminary data indicate that this area is in need of stormwater control which enters with high total suspended solids, nutrients, and microbial contaminations.C. Fernandez-Team leader,J. Colón-Team Leader, G. Ramírez-Co-author,H. Hertler-Co-author

Incidence of Cyclospora and Cryptosporidium in Waters Distributed to Small Drinking Water Systems in Puerto Rico (Poster Q-1436)

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2010-05-26The ocurrence of Cyclospora (Cyc) and Cryptosporidium (Cry)spp is unknown for Puerto Rico and for most of the Caribbean although Cyc were identified by the Commonwealth Department of Health and verified by CDC in one outbreak of uncertain etiology in an area served by a small potable water system. The authors understook to survey waters distributed to users in small potable water systems on the Island. Users in these systems sre protected, if at all, only by disinfection-usually chlorination-and the incidence of possibly waterborne illness in these areas has been reported to be above Island-wide levels. To date, eleven 40-L samples were collected and concentrated by flocculation, then Cry determined by direct fluorescent antibody techniques on IMS-separated portions; DNA was extracted and stored for subsequent analyses. Cyc were determined by modified Zielhl-Neelson staining and wet-mount microscopic examination. These systems were also examined for standard bacteriological water indicators (total coliform (TC), fecal coliform (FC), E. coli (Ec) and Enterococci (ent)) and Salmonella and these results are correlated with ocurrence of the protozoa. Of the four systems surveyed to date one was positive for Cry and two were positive for Cyc. All these systems were positive for TC, FC, Ec, ent and Salmonella, as well. G I Ramírez toro, G. Robinson, R M Chalmers, H A Minnigh 1-CECIA, Interamerican University of Puerto Rico. 2-Public Health Wales, Swansea, Wales, UK. 3-The Gabriella and Paul Rosenbaum Foundation, Chicago, IL.

Fecal contaminants in shellfish harvesting areas Puerto Rico (Poster 2618)

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2012-06-19In Puerto Rico the local oysters and clams are harvested from coastal estuaries and sounds and there is no controlled mariculture for this product. During heavy rain these surface waters routinely receive effluent containing fecal waste of residential, municipal, agricultural or wildlife origin in storm discharges. This surface water contamination likely contributes to the burden of shellfish-associated gastroenteritis. Shellfish are harvested from near-shore areas of different bays in the southwest and south of Puerto Rico and sold in local markets. Shellfish, mostly mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhozophorea) and – in much smaller numbers – clams (Mercenaria mercenaria) are harvested from four areas in Puerto Rico. Most oysters come from and are sold adjacent to Boquerón Bay where we sampled 3 sites. The other sites had one station each. Clams are geographically more distributed but the beds are less abundant Standard sampling protocols developed by the Interstate Shellfish Sanitation Conference (ISSC) were used to conduct a survey of Puerto Rico’s four primary shellfish rearing areas. At each of the area sites water, sediment, and bivalves were sampled during an 18 month period. Total coliform (TC), Thermotolerant coliforms (ThC), E. coli (Ec), Enterococcus spp., Salmonella spp., in bivalve, water and sediment samples and hepatitis A virus and norovirus in bivalve samples were analyzed. Bacterial methods were according to Standard Methods and for viruses RNA was extracted from the bivalve’s stomach with a proteinase K based protocol and real time PCR was conducted on the samples with appropriate internal amplification positive control in each sample subsequently. A total of 72 pooled, 15 individuals samples were tested for viruses with the following results. Bacterial concentrations found in the samples ranged from 15-25 CFU ThC/g, 15-25 CFU E. coli/g, and 30-145 Enterococci/g in bivalves; 30-875 CFU ThC/g, 250-550 CFU E. coli/g, and 30-145 Enterococci/g in sediments; and 60-1100 CFU ThC/ml, 60-1250 CFU E. coli/ml, and 14-23 Enterococci/ml in water. Data from this study suggests that mollusks harvested from surface waters not specifically approved for shellfish harvesting pose a health risk for consumers and that water and sediment quality indicators correlate well with microbial occurrence in bivalves.H. Minnigh, G. Ramírez Toro, K. Ballester, J. Levine; 1The Gabriella and Paul Rosenbaum Fdn., Lajas, PR, 2CECIA, UIPR, San Germán, PR, 3PHP Dept., Coll. of Vet. Med., NCSU, Raleigh, NC, 4PHP Dept., Coll. of Vet. Med.a, NCSU, Raleigh, NC.

Cyclospora and Cryptosporidium in small systems n Puerto Rico: a pilot study

FechaResumenAutoresPublicación
2011-10-03The ocurrence of Cyclospora and Cryptosporidium spp is unknown for Puerto Rico and for most of the Caribbean but reported occurrence for Cryptosporidium in clinical samples ranges from 4 to 60% and for Cyclospora from 1 to 34%. Cyclospora were identified by the Commonwealth Department of Health and verified by CDC in one outbreak of uncertain etiology in an area served by a small potable water system. In a survey over the period 2008-2011 waters distributed to users in small potable water systems in the Island were analyzed for microbial water quality indicators (total coliform (TC), thermotolerant coliform (TTC), E. Coli (Ec) and Enterococus (Ent)), Salmonella, Cruptosporidium and Cyclospora.Graciela Ramírez-Toro, Guy Robinson, Rachel Chalmers and Harvey Minnig

Impact on diarrhoeal illness of a community educational intervention to improve drinking water quality in rural communities in Puerto Rico

FechaResumenAutoresPublicación
2010-10-01Hunter et al. BMC Public Health 2010, 10:219 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/10/219Paul R Hunter*1, Graciela I Ramírez-Toro2 and Harvey A Minnigh3

The role of attachment in the colonization and chlorine resistance of fungi in potable water distribution systems

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2010-04-11 Poster #P077- The water Research Conference. Marriot Lisbon, PortugalRamírez-Toro G.I, Minnigh H.

Engaging comnunities in shellfish sanitation programs: fecal contaminants in shellfish harvesting areas in Puerto Rico

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1990-01-01Poster presentado en CERF Argentina 14-16 noviembre 2012Graciela Ramírez toro, Karina Ballester, Harvey Minnigh and Jay Levine CECIA, Interamerican University of Puerto Rico, North Carolina State University & Gabriella and Paul Rosenbaum Foundation

Occurrence of Salmonella spp. in Small Potable Water Systems in the Tropics Correlated with Microbiological Indicators of Water Quality

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2005-01-01Indicators have been used for at least 80 years in the monitoring of potable water. While indicator theory is clear on the point, many workers in the field have assumed that negative indicator results are “proof” that the distribution system tested is free from microbiological contamination, in particular that frank pathogens are un-likely to occur in these systems.1 Seven small, remote potable water systems in Puerto Rico were sampled in the period June-November, 2004. Relatively large volumes (8.7-10.9 liters) of both source and distributed wa-ter were filtered, the filters divided in three, one-half analyzed in Puerto Rico and the other half divided, in turn, one-quarter for analysis in each of the University of DE and Washington College. Filters for each lab were ag-gregated in a single container for shipment and subsequent analysis for the occurrence of Salmonella. Indica-tors, i.e., total and fecal coliforms, E. coli, fecal strep and HPC were analyzed in Puerto Rico. Salmonella were analyzed the Standard Methods, serological and molecular techniques and results considered positive with a positive result in any of these techniques. Results are shown in Table 1. Salmonella were found to occur in all but one of the raw waters and all but two of the distribution systems and in the presence of free chlorine residu-als up to 0.8 mg/L. Implications for judgments of microbiological water quality in such systems are discussed as are the utility and cost of routine pathogen monitoring for specific potable water systems. Results from the participating labs were not significantly different one from another by McNemar’s test and correlations among the Salmonella techniques used and with standard indicators are reported.Diane Herson1, bunch-o-students1, Katherine Verveille1, other bunch-o-students2, G. I. Ramírez toro3, Big mess-o-students3, H. Minnigh3 1University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 2Washington College, Washington, MD, 3Interamerican University of Puerto Rico, San Germán

Viability of Small Water System: Making Sense does not mean it will work

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1990-01-01Minnigh, HA & Ramírez Toro, G.I.1999. Viability of Small Water System: Making Sense does not mean it will work. IV Congreso Regional de AIDIS para Norte América y el Caribe. 4 al 8 de octubre de 1999. Kingston, Jamaica.

Preliminary Studies on High-Rate Slow Sand Filter in Tropical Climates

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2013-06-10Minnigh, H.A, G.I. Ramírez, W.O. Pipes& C.O. Vázquez. 1992. Preliminary Studies on High-Rate Slow Sand Filter in Tropical Climates. Abst. Meeting for Safety of Water Disifection: Balancing Chemical and Microbial Risks. Washington, D.C